Comparison of Connectedness in Online, Blended, and Face-to-Face Research Methods Courses among Hispanic and Low-Income Students.

Authors: Kristen Faye Linton, MSW, Ph.D., Lydia Dixon, Ph.D., Jaime Hannans, RN, Ph.D., & Megan Eberhardt-Alstot
California State University, Channel Islands


When students feel connected to the instructor, they are more likely to remain motivated, engaged, and persist toward completing an online course. Rarely have studies compared connectedness in three modalities: online only, blended, and face-to-face. This study compared perceptions of connectedness among students (N = 27) from an Hispanic Serving Institution with their instructor and peers in a research methods course. The sample of students took the same course in three different sections- each taught in a different modality by the same white instructor. Connectedness and students’ grades were lower for students who took the course fully online. However, student ratings of teachings were highest for those who took the online-only section. Latinx students reported less connectedness in the online-only section than others. The results inform decisions about teaching modalities during the pandemic and in the future; synchronous learning is critical to obtain equitable connectedness among Latinx students.


Teaching modality; connectedness; social presence; Latinx; Hispanic Serving Institution; online teaching; blended learning

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